Thursday , 20 January 2022

An Overview of Pharmacogenomics

V. Akhileswar Reddy1, B. Kishore Kumar Reddy1, Ch. Krishna Mohan2*, M. Nirosha1
1Sri Krishnadevaraya University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur–515001, AP, India.
2School of Pharmacy, Nalla Narasimha Reddy Education Society’s Group of institution, korremula X road, Chowdari Guda (Vill), Ghatkesar (Man), Ranga Reddy (Dist)- 500088, A.P, India.

“One–site fits-all drugs” only work for about 60 percent of the population at best and the other 40percentof the population increase their risks of adverse drug reaction because their genes do not do what is intended of them. A number of ‘Validated Targets’ are available for the drug Discovery with major breakthrough in the field of ‘Genomics and Proteomics’. This to a great extent has simplified Lead Discovery process. “Pharmacogenomics” is the broader application of genomic technologies to new drug discovery and further characterization of older drugs. It is the branch of Pharmacology which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a drug’s efficacy or toxicity. Pharmacogenomic analysis promises to identify disease susceptibility genes thus discovering new drug targets. Pharmacogenomics may contribute to a “smarter” drug development process, allow for the prediction of efficacy/toxicity during clinical development, and make the process more efficient by, decreasing the number of patients required to show efficacy in clinical trials and decrease costs and time to bring drug to market. The emerging discipline of Pharmacogenomics attempts to apply the innovative technologies of genome sequencing in order to better understand drug response to produce more effective drugs with fewer side effects on the basis of individual patient’s genetic makeup and making personalized medicine an economically viable possibility.
Keywords: Validated Targets, single nucleotide polymorphisms

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