Amir Khan*, Manisha Sanwal, Fouzia Ishaq
*Dept. of Biotechnology & Biochemistry
Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences & Research, Dehradun, India
Plant are most importance source of medicines among them ocimum spieces belonging to the family lamiaceae are very important for their therapeutic potential.Ocimum sanctum. (tulsi), O.gratissimum linn.(Ram Tulsi),O.canum sims(Dulal Tulsi),O.basilicum linn.(Ban Tulsi),O.americanum linn.(Hoary Basil).and O.micranthum wild,are well known example important species. Among them Holy Basil,Ocimum sanctum has been well documented for its therapeutic potential Tulsi is fragrant bushy perennial growing up to 1.5m in height with profusion of white blooms and slightly purple tinted foliage.It is often planted in temples and used in rosaries.It is native to india reached in western Europe in 16th century. Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, Asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever otalgia, hepatopathy, vomitinglumbago, hiccups, opthalmia, gastropathy,genitourinary disorder,ringworm,verminosis and skin diseases, etc.Its is commonly used in cough,cold, mild indigestion,diminished appetite and malaise.The only side effect reported in constipation.
It has significant ability to scavenge highly reactive free radicals. Antioxidant bioassay directed of fresh leaves and stem of tulsi extract yielded:cirsilineol,cirsimaritin,isothym-usin,apigenin,rosmarinic acid and aapereciable quantities of eugenol. Eugenol is a major component of the volatile oil,and the other compounds also demonstrated good antioxidant property.
HYPOGLYCAEMIC AND HYPOLIPIDICMIC ACTIVITY:
Ocimum sanctum have numerous pharmacological activities.Oral administration of alcoholic extract of leaves led to marked lowering of blood sugar level in normal ,glucose fed hypoglycaemic and streptozotocin induced diabetic rat. It might potentially regulate corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus. In addition to the hypoglycaemic. hypolipdemic effect of tulsi in diabetic rat also indicated. Sarker et al demonstrated that administration of fresh leave of tulsi mixed in diet resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol.triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol level and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol content.
The seed oil can modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responsiveness and these immunomodulatry effect may be GABAergic pathway.Godhwani et al indicated an immunostimulant capability, ehich may be contributory in explaning the adaptogenic action of plant.A methanol extract and aqueous suspension can inhibit acute as well chronic inflammation in rat tested by carragenan-induced pedal edema and croton oil-induced granuloma and exudates,respectively.
CHEMOPREVENTIVE & RADIOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY:
Oral treatment with leaves extract significantly elevated the activities of cytochromep-450, cytochromeb5, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase in liver, all of which are important in detoxicfication of carcinogen and mutagene.Ethanolic extract of leaves show chemopreservative property. It also show significances protection to the human lymphocyte against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low non toxic concentration.It is related to antioxidant activity.
Tulsi has been widely use for curing various aligment due to great therapeutic potential. A number of pharmacological effect like hypoglyceamic, immunomodulatory, antisress, antisress, anti-infammatory, anti ulcerogenic,anti-hypertensive, CNS depressant, radioprotective,anti-tumour and anti-microbial of O.sanctum have been worked by various worker.