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Biochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Calocera viscosa Collected from Western Ghats Region of Karnataka

Ashok Chittaragi* and Jayashree Kodiyalmath 
Research Scholar, Dept. of P. G. Studies and Research in Applied Botany, Mycology Lab, Bio-Science Complex, Jnana Sahyadri, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta-577451, Shimoga (District),  Karnataka, India
Received: 28 May 2014, Accepted: 10 July 2014, Published Online: 18 July 2014

Different organic solvent extracts of Calocera viscosa (Pers.) Fr. (Dacrymycetaceae), prepared in increasing order of polarity were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram -ve, Gram +ve, plant and human pathogenic bacteria (ten) and human and plant pathogenic fungi (twenty) using agar well diffusion assay. The pattern of inhibition was found to vary with the solvent used for extraction and the microorganisms tested. However, most of the organic solvent extracts viz., petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol showed significant antimicrobial activity (ranging between 3.3 to 32 mm) against the tested microbes. Most of the extracts showed a higher activity against the Gram -ve and plant pathogenic bacteria as compared to the Gram +ve and human pathogenic bacteria. Same time the extracts showed in higher activity against human pathogenic fungi as compared to the plant pathogenic fungi. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts were found to exhibit inhibition of a wider range of bacterial strains; however, the highest zone of inhibition (14 mm) was recorded by the methanol extract against S. typhi, E. coli and X. campestris followed by the petroleum ether and chloroform extract against S. aureus, P. syringae and P. aeuroginosa at 100% concentration.  Petroleum ether and methanol extracts were found to be maximum zone of inhibition range of fungal strains; however, the highest zone of inhibition (14 mm) was showed by the petroleum ether extract against C. albicans and F. solani, followed by methanol extract against C. indicum and A. flavus at 100 % concentration. In contrast, the human fungal strains like, C. merdarium and T. rubrum also plant fungal strains like, C. damatium and C. lindemuthianum are completely absent in all the three solvent extracts. The increasing of extracts concentration whereas we observed the increasing diameter of zone of inhibition. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenols in all extracts.  Glycosides and sterols presence in chloroform and methanol extracts. Saponins presence both petroleum ether and methanol, whereas tannins and triterpenoids presence in chloroform and methanol extracts respectively. The results of the present study show that Calocera viscosa fruiting body extracts possess bioactive compounds having significant antimicrobial activity, making it a potential natural source of new antimicrobial agents.
Keywords: Calocera viscosa, Fruiting bodies, Biochemical analysis, Human and plant pathogenic microorganisms, Wild mushrooms, Western Ghats.

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