P. Venkata Durga Seshu Priya*1, Dr. P. Venkatesh2, M. Swaroopa3
1-3Jagans Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jangala Kandriga, Nellore
A B S T R A C T
Vaccination is among the most successful medical treatments ever developed. This prophylaxis had a long journey through history to become one of humanity’s key achievements; from early immunisation in China, centuries ago, through to Edward Jenner’s works in the eighteenth century–when the word “vaccination” was introduced for the first time – up to these modern times when recombinant protein-based vaccines are increasingly becoming popular. Despite the advances in the field, classical vaccination using whole organisms is still common. Whole pathogen immunisations usually produce long lasting immunity; however, they are not without drawbacks. The human body developed an extensive defense system against microbial pathogens. The particular microbes have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to evade immune surveillance, allowing persistence within the human host. In an effort to combat such infections, intensive research has focused on the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasures to suppress or clear persistent viral infections. The DNA vaccines have now re-emerged as a promising candidate for therapeutic intervention due to the development of advanced optimization and delivery technologies. The genetic optimization of synthetic plasmid constructs and their encoded antigens, in vivo electroporation-mediated vaccine delivery, as well as codelivery with molecular adjuvants have collectively enhanced both transgene expression and the elicitation of vaccine-induced immunity. The development of potent heterologous prime–boost regimens has also provided significant contributions to DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Herein, the authors will focus on these recent improvements to this synthetic platform in relation to their application in combating persistent virus infection.
Keywords: DNA vaccine immunogenicity, microbes, human body, transgene expression, synthetic plasmid.