Ponezhil and V. Judia Harriet Sumathy*
Postgraduate & Research Department of Biotechnology, Women’s Christian College, Chennai–600006, India.
Plant tissue culture forms the backbone of plant biotechnology, i.e. micropropagation, induction of somaclones, somatic hybridization, cryopreservation and regeneration of transgenic plants. Plant Tissue Culture is an essential component of Plant Biotechnology. Research efforts in plant cell and tissue culture have increased dramatically worldwide in recent years including efforts in developing nations. Today tissue culture technology is being exploited mainly for large scale production or micropropagation of elite planting material with desirable characteristics. This technology has now been commercialized globally and has contributed significantly towards the enhanced production of high quality planting material. Recently, emphasis has been on genetic transformation, especially for increased production of secondary metabolites, production of alkaloids, pharmaceutics, nematocidal compounds, and also some novel compounds not found in the whole plant, regeneration of plant resistant to herbicides, diseases, and pests, scale up of cultures in bioreactors, plants with different morphological traits, and transgenic plants for the production of vaccines etc. These developments have far-reaching implications in the improvement of medicinal plants as well. The present study was aimed to perform tissue culture and callus induction in Holoptelea integrifolia, observe somatic embryonic stages from callus under inverted microscope and to isolate protoplast from callus with viability test. Further investigation involves the antibacterial effect of callus extract of Holoptelea integrifolia on test organisms and the analysis of phytochemicals in the callus extract. Thus this study was undertaken to attempt tissue culture in the medicinal plant Holoptelea integrifolia, to observe the response of the plant in tissue culture techniques, to screen the phytochemicals in the callus of Holoptelea integrifolia and to check the antibacterial property of the callus extract on four test organisms.
Keywords: Plant Tissue Culture, Micropropagation, Holoptelea integrifolia, Phytochemicals and Antibacterial property.