K. Surendra*, P. Harichandana, Y. Gayathri, P. Meghamala
Rao’s College of Pharmacy, Chemudugunta, Venkatachalam, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh-524320
A B S T R A C T
Oncolytic viral therapy is a new promising strategy against cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells, leading to lysis of the tumor mass. Beside this primary effect, OVs can also stimulate the immune system. The effectiveness of OVs has been demonstrated in many preclinical studies and recently in humans, with US Food and Drug Administration approval of the oncolytic herpesvirustalimogenelaherparepvecin advanced melanoma, a major breakthrough for the field. Several oncolytic viruses including canine distemper virus, adenovirus strains, and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. These include pneumonitis, pancreatitis, and colitis, which are relatively infrequent but can limit therapeutic options for some patients. Intratumor injection of oncolytic viruses, in contrast, has a markedly lower rate of serious adverse effects and perhaps greater specificity to target tumor cells. In this review describes that therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed.
Keywords: Oncolytic virus, cancer, immune system, tumor, Preclinical studies