Krishan Bijrania1, Bhanwar Lal Jat2, Ranjeeta Kumari3, Bhanwar Lal4, Raaz K Maheshwari*5
1Department of Chemistry, Poornima University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2Department of Botany, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India
3Department of Biotechnology, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India
4 Department of Chemistry, Singhania University, Zhunzhunu, Rajasthan, India
5Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India
Water pollution problems, due to industrial effluents in aquatic environments (lakes, rivers, estuaries & coastal waters), are increasing day by day as industrial effluent waste is degrading ecosystem, global water cycle and environment. Applications of biological agents (organisms or their components), along with physical, chemical & engineering processes to maintain, protect and restore the environment are involved in Environmental Biotechnology (EB). Analytical analysis and tests like BOD, COD, TSS and TS, etc. are required to assess the pollution load and strength of waste to be treated in most efficient manner. Biological treatment, bioremediation and natural attenuation have been a rapidly growing area of science over the past decade. Natural attenuation is viewed as the best solution for cleaning up many waste sites and will save billions of dollars in cleanup costs. The biotreatment, bioremediation and Natural Attenuation area have both basic research and field application foci for the EB. The field application foci are co-metabolic techniques, biogeochemical assessment techniques, and modeling of attenuation and environmental fate. There is further scope for research for modification and applications in physical and chemical engineering processes (like creation of more channels for treatment of effluent wastes, increase in retention time of effluent during various stages so that more biodegradation & bioremediation can be achieved) and applications of genetically improved better strains of microbes to control effluent pollution more efficiently.
Keywords: Toxicants, Health hazards, Heavy metals, VOCs, Organics, Xenobiotic compounds, Biosorption, Clinical manifestations, Biosurfactants