Thursday , 29 February 2024

Growing Concern and Threat of Invasive Alien Species on Natural Ecosystem and Native Species

Dr. Anuj Saxena*
Department of Botany, Sacred Heart Degree College, Sitapur-261001, U.P., India

Invasive alien species (IAS) are non native organism that cause, or have potential to cause harm to the environment, economics or human health. About 40% of Indian flora is alien, of which 25% is invasive. A number of invasive alien species colonized the Indian subcontinent have transformed the native landscape up to much more extent. Invasive species cause biodiversity loss, species extinction, hydrological changes and changes in ecosystem composition, structure and function. Invasive alien species have large detrimental economic impacts on human enterprises such as fisheries, agriculture, grazing and forestry. Differences between native and exotic plant species in their requirements and modes of resources acquisition and consumption may change the edaphic component (i.e. soil structure, profile, moisture availability, decomposition, soil nutrient content etc). Invasive species have posed a threat to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity with impacts on ecosystem services. IAS are one of the most significant drivers of environmental change worldwide. Increasing globalization of market, rise in global trade, travel and tourism has given the global dimension to biological invasions. For effective management of invasive species, knowledge about their ecology, morphology, phenology, reproductive biology, physiology and phytochemistry is essential to trickle the IAS. Despite of recent recognition of the impact caused by invasive alien species, no concrete framework has been formulated to manage the invasive species. There is a dire need of urgent, integrated and coordinated invasive alien species management program. Present paper deals with the ecology of invasive species, impact of invasion on native plants and biodiversity and possible control measures.
Keywords: Invasive alien species (IAS), biodiversity, Convention on Biological Diversity

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