Monday , 26 February 2024

Enzyme Inhibitors Involving Various Diseases

Hajamydeen Mahumutha*, Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi, N. Venkateshan
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Arulmigu Kalasalingam college of Pharmacy,  Anand Nagar, Krishnankoil-626126, Tamil Nadu, India.

Enzymes are protein molecules which work as catalyst. Enzymes speed up chemical reaction in the bodyall biochemical reaction in living thing need enzymes. The human body contain approximately 750000 are exist in the human body. It divided into three types;Metabolic enzymes that run our body &Digestive enzyme digestion our food.Food enzymes raw foods that start our food digestion. Enzyme inhibitors is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decrease it’s activity. Since blocking the enzyme activity kill the pathogen. There are three types of inhibitors. They are,Competitive inhibitors.( Raises Km only),Noncompetitive/ Mixed inhibitors.(Lowers Vmax & Km),Uncompetitive inhibitors. (Lowers Vmax only).Competitive inhibitors mean compete with substrate to bind to the enzyme at the same site. The inhibitor has an affinity for the active site of enzyme e.g pencillin inhibit the bacterial cell wall synthesis, Noncompetitive inhibitors e.g are combine cyanide or potassium cyanide with combine dehydrogenase with the cytochrome enzyme response for transfer of hydrogen atom during cellular respiration, antibiotic enzyme inhibitors are noncompetitive inhibitor can combine with either free enzyme because it binding site of enzyme distinct from the active site. Reversible inhibitor means the binding of an inhibitor can stop substrate from entering enzymes active site. Either reversible or irreversible inhibitor usually react with the enzyme and change it chemically via chemical bond formation. Irreversible inhibitor, inhibitors bind at or near the active site of the enzyme. It occupy or destroy the active sites of enzyme permanently and decrease the reaction rate. It combines with the functional group of aminoacid in the active site inhibitors. Irreversible inhibitor similarly are clinically used include drugs such as aspirin, Omeprazole and monooxidase enzyme inhibitor.
Keywords: DHFR inhibitors, Enzymes, Enzyme inhibitors, Monoamine oxidase inhibitors,   PCSK9 inhibitors, Xanthine oxidation enzyme inhibitors.

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