About author :
Abhilash A*, Gopi Krishna B, Prabhu Raj KJ, Hemalatha M, Dr. Hindustan Abdul Ahad
B. Pharmacy, Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India
The incidence of multidrug resistance in bacterial population has increased the importance of conventional ayurvedic and herbal medicines. In this study we have evaluated the effect of Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Quercus infectoria, Rubia cordifolia, Embilica officinalis, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Acacia arabica on bacteria. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different medicinal plants were screened for their anti-microbial activity on Blood Agar Medium against mixed dental flora. Agar well diffusion method was used to check anti-bacterial activity of the extracts against aerobic dental flora. The extracts which demonstrated maximum anti-bacterial activity were used to prepare a poly herbal extract. This poly herbal extract can prevent the growth of dental bacteria and thus can be used for oral hygiene. Chewable tablets were prepared from the poly herbal extract and the tablets also demonstrated good antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Poly-herbal extracts, anti-bacterial activity, agar well diffusion method, mixed dental flora
The use of plant-derived medicines for treating diseases has been common practice in India since ages. Medicinal plants are part and parcel of humans since the dawn of civilization. In India they form the backbone of several indigenous traditional systems of medicine. The demand of plant based therapeutics is increasing in both developed and developing countries as they are non-narcotic, having no side effects, easily available at affordable prices. The presence of nutrients, epithelial debris and secretions makes mouth a favourable habitat for a great variety of bacteria. Oral bacteria include Streptococci, Lactobacilli, Staphylococci, and Corynebacterium, with a great number of anaerobes, especially bacteriodes. Dental plaque refers to the aggregates of bacterial cell embedded in a polysaccharide and protein matrix which adheres to the teeth by a characteristic bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. Plaque is classified as supragingival or subgingival based on its relationship to the gingival margin. Dental decay is due to the irreversible solubilization of tooth mineral by acid produced by certain bacteria that adhere to the tooth surface in bacterial communities known as dental plaque. The present study aimed to evaluate effect of many herbs and their mixture to control plaque formation.
The formulation i.e. tablet proved to be very effective against mixed dental flora when compared to its individual ingredients. The tablet showed the antibacterial activity with zone of 20 mm in diameter which is greater than each individual extracts tested. Hence from these studies we can conclude that instead of using individual extract, mixture of extracts is more effective. The poly herbal product in the form of tablet with hardness disintegrate immediately in water and hence is potential for using commercially. In fact these plants produce a wide range of bioactive molecules. Here, the combination of all these plant materials in equal proportions makes the tablet preparation as one of the rich source of phyto constituents. The tablet shows the synergistic effect on plaque.