Monday , 17 June 2024

An Overview of Babesiosis

P. Sri Chandana yadhav*, M.V. Sai lalith kumar, Y.N. Sujitha, M. Lavanya, Ch. Madhavilatha
Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Pharmacy College, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore

Babesiosis is an infection caused by a malaria-like parasite, also called a piroplasm, [genus-Babesia ,phylum- Apicomplexa] that infects red blood cells. The first case of babesiosis was reported from Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, in 1969. Over 100 distinct species have since been identified within the Babesia genus, though only a few of these are currently known to be human pathogens. The disease manifestations of human babesiosis are caused by the asexual reproductive stage of the organism in the erythrocytes of the host and the subsequent lysis of host cells. Most cases of B. microti infection are mild and usually resolve on their own, without treatment. Significant effort has been invested in the development of vaccines for cattle andother animals, however, which might eventually prove useful for developing a human vaccine. Much of the work done to develop vaccines has focused on the large babesias, such as B. bovis, B. divergens, and B. bigemina. In more severe cases, however, a combination of clindamycin and quinine is administered as the standard treatment. At the present time, there are no vaccines for humans against babesial organisms, nor is infection frequent enough at present to warrant a large-scale vaccine effort. Further studies using the molecular tools now available and those to be developed will lead to a better understanding of the natural history of these organisms, including the transmission cycle and the potential role of Babesia parasites themselves as immunomodulators.
Keywords: Clindamycin, quinine, B. bovis, B. divergens and B. bigemina

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