Sreekanth K *, Taj Khan,Bhanu Bee, Abhilash A, Dr. Hindustan Abdul Ahad
M. Pharmacy, Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India
E-mail: [email protected]Introduction
Malaria was once considered to arise from marshy land (Hence the name “Malaaria bad (or) poisonous air but we now recognize that the disease is caused by parasites belonging to the genus plasmodium. Four species of plasmodia infect Human: plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium faliparum, and plasmodiumovale and plasmodium malariae. The Insect veator is female Analpheles mosquito, which Breeds in stagnant water, and the Disease it spreads is onse of the Major Killers on planet.
Key words: Parasites, Genus plasmodium, Plasmodium vivax, P. fuliparum, Anapheles mosquito
Present generation of malaria
More than a third of the world’s population is at risk of contracting malaria – it is estimated that 100 people, primarily children in Africa, die of malaria every hour of every day every year. Malaria is one of the main obstacles to socio-economic development in Africa. Vaccines are considered to be an important strategy to achieve the ultimate goal of malaria elimination and eradication, in addition to the other effective control measures against malaria. The third conference in the series MALARIA VACCINES FOR THE WORLD–MVW 2013 is the follow-up to the successful MVW meeting held in London in 2007 and Washington DC in 2010 and again will offer researchers a fresh new forum to discuss the current status of new malaria vaccines initiatives, vaccine candidates and clinical trials. MVW 2013 will focus attention on ‘Vaccine Issues’ in relation to Malaria as a worldwide disease. MVW2013 will be of interest to scientists, physicians and other professionals from the academic, industrial and governmental/policy/regulatory sectors who have an interest in the development, assessment, trends and deployment of vaccines for the worldwide problem that is malaria.
Past trends Burden on Malaria
Malaria was Eradicated from most Temperature Countries in the 20thCentury, and the WHO attempted to Eradicate Malaria elsewhere using the powerful ‘Residual’Insecticides and Highly effective Anti malarial drugs That had Became Available. By end of the 1950s, the incidence of Malaria had dropped dramatically. How ever during the 1970s it Became clear that the attempt at eradication had failed- Largely owing to the increasing resistance of the of the Mosquito to the insecticides and of the parasite to the Drugs (Quinine, Meflo-quinine).
Feature trends of Malaria
Malaria is one of the country’s major causes of sickness and death, especially among young children. According to the Ghana Health Services (GHS), malaria accounted for almost 40% of outpatient illness and over one-third of all health facility admissions in 2010. The World Health Organization(WHO), estimates total malaria-attributable child deaths at 14,000 per year in Ghana. The Ghanaian Ministry of Health aims to reduce the malaria disease burden by 75% by 2015.
Prevention and control of Malaria
Educating the people about the cause, prevention and importance of maintaining good environment, safe drainage, and personal Hygiene in eradication the Disease. Spraying insecticides, pesticides (pyrethrum), Larvicides (aboute,baytex), Chemicals (kerosene, diesel), DDT (DichlorodiphenylTricholroethane), BHC , acetoaresenate Copper with slaked Lime and Gammaxine), to kill adults and Larve of Mosquitoes. Protechtion from Mosquito bites By using Nets, Mosquito coils, Mosquito repellants like Citronella Oil, Dimethyl phthalate, Eucalyptus oils etc.
Malaria remains special. Its specialness lies less in the absolute burden of illness and death that malaria imposes than in the fact that its control demands a response from public health systems that few, if any, are in a strong enough position to provide. Malaria exemplifies a problem worthy of a different approach to public health than has been used thus far. It calls for an educated response; no brute force, top-down method will solve it. If active community collaboration is not obtained, available control methods will fail. Malaria is technically as complex as any problem that humankind has had to face up until now and thus should attract the attention of the entire scientific community.