A. Bharath kumar1*, S.P. Zakiullah1, B. Kumar1, Sk. Kareemulla1, Ramesh Dhani2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Annamcharya college of Pharmacy, Rajampet, A.P, India-518218
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Nellore, A.P, India-524346.
A B S T R A C T
It is a group of metabolic diseases in which there is high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Diabetes is due to pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 DM results from the pancreas failure to produce enough insulin. Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood-sugar levels. The patients having the symptoms of polyuria, ployphasia, polydypsia, vision loss, leg ulcers. Diabetes is the leading cause of ESRD because diabetic nephropathy develops in 30 to 40% of patients. The progression of diabetes results in nephropathy, neurological manifestations, optic nerve damage. We conclude that early detection and diagnosis educating the patients about disease regular monitoring of blood sugar levels, Pharmacotherapy keeps the diabetes in control. We hope that newer trends for diabetes treatment like stem cell therapy, gene replacement therapy, cells replacement therapy have been introduced. Approaching these trends minimizing the diabetes complications in the society.
Keywords: Ulcers, beta cells, ESRD, insulin, pancreas, stem cells.