K. Surendra*, R. Kinnerapriya, B. Himabindu, T. Akhila
Rao’s College of Pharmacy, Chemudugunta, Venkatachalam, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh-524320
A B S T R A C T
Zika virus is a mosquito borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. It was first isolated in 1947. Since then, multiple outbreaks of ZIKV have been reported in different countries. It is transmitted mostly by Aedes mosquitoes, and the symptoms of fever, joint pain, red eyes, headache, and maculopapular rash closely resemble chikungunya and dengue. The most severe complications of ZIKV infection include the risk of microcephaly and other congenital brain anomalies in infected pregnant women. This review is based on literature search in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar and the WHO, http://www.who.int. This include all relevant articles written in English published through June 2018, with subject heading and keywords such as Zika, ZIKV, Zika pathogenesis, diagnosis of Zika, Zika Nigeria, Zika Africa and Zika resource-limited settings. Following ZIKV infection, viraemia ensues targeting primarily the monocytes for both the Asian and African strains. There is no routine laboratory diagnosis of ZIKV infection in resource-constrained countries. Serologic tests should be interpreted with caution since there can be cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, especially in Africa where the burden of infection with flaviviruses is comparatively high.
Keywords: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Flavivirus, Chikungunya, Dengue, Diagnosis