Sunday , 17 January 2021

Technical note on Blastomycosis

Naveen
Author Details
B.Naveen Kumar*, Dr.Hindustan Abdul ahad, G.Chaitanya, S.MohammedShaibaz
B.Pharmacy
Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, A.P, India
E-mail: naveenbapana9@rediffmail.com 

Introduction:
Blastomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus lives in moist soil and in association with decomposing organic matter such as wood and leaves. Lung infection can occur after a person inhales airborne, microscopic fungal spores from the environment; however, many people who inhale the spores do not get sick. The symptoms of blastomycosis are similar to flu symptoms, and the infection can sometimes become serious if it is not treated. Fungal infections pose an increasing threat to public health for several reasons.
Definition:
Blastomycosis is a disease caused by the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. The fungus lives in moist soil and in association with decomposing organic matter such as wood and leaves. Lung infection can occur after a person inhales airborne, microscopic fungal spores from the environment; however, many people who inhale the spores do not get sick. The symptoms of blastomycosis are similar to flu symptoms, and the infection can sometimes become serious if it is not treated, especially if the infection spreads from the lungs to other organs.
Symptoms:
Only with about half of the people who are infected with blastomycosis will show symptoms. If symptoms occur, they usually appear between 3 and 15 weeks after being exposed to the fungus. The symptoms of blastomycosis are similar to flu symptoms, and include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, joint pain, and chest pain. In very serious cases of blastomycosis, the fungus can disseminate (spread) to other parts of the body, such as the skin and bones.
Sources:
Blastomyces dermatitidis lives in soil and in association with decaying organic matter such as leaves and wood. The microscopic fungal spores can become airborne when the soil is disturbed, and breathing in the spores can cause infection in the lungs. Blastomycosis cannot be spread from person to person or from animals to people.
Diagnosis:
There are multiple tests available to diagnose blastomycosis. The best way to diagnose the infection is to perform a fungal culture. Doctors take small samples from tissues or body fluids, such as blood, sputum, bone marrow, liver, or skin and see if the fungus will grow from these samples in a laboratory. Blastomycosis can also be diagnosed by looking at a small sample of infected tissue under a microscope. An antigen test can detect the presence of the fungus in a urine or serum sample, and a blood test can measure prior exposure to the fungus by detecting Blastomyces antibodies.
Treatments:
Blastomycosis requires treatment with antifungal medicine that must be prescribed by your doctor. For people with mild or moderate infections, itraconazole is commonly used. People with more severe infections may require more aggressive treatment with amphotericin B. Newer triazole antifungal medications, such as voriconazole and posaconazole, are also available, but their role in treating blastomycosis is still being determined.

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