Research Scholar, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, SVU Staff Colony, Padmavathi Nagar, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India-517502
A B S T R A C T
Immunology has its origins in the study of how the body protects itself against infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, and also parasitic organisms, such as helminth worms. The immune system consists of two branches such as the innate immune system that utilises certain hard-wired strategies to provide a rapid, general, response when alerted by certain typical signals of infection (essentially forming a first-line of defence and the adaptive immune system that is able to develop highly specific responses (and a persistent ‘immune memory’) to target infection with extraordinary accuracy. All immune cells originate in the bone marrow, deriving from haematopoietic stem cells, but an important set of immune cells (T lymphocytes) undergo maturation in an organ known as the thymus. There is a great deal of synergy between the adaptive immune system and its innate counterpart, and defects in either system can provoke illness or disease, such as autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiency disorders and hypersensitivity reactions. The immune system is a part of body to detect the pathogen by using a specific receptor to produce immediately response by the activation of immune components cells, cytokines, chemokine’s and also release of inflammatory mediator. They modulate and potentiate the immune system.
Keywords: Immunology, Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity, Immune cells, Auto immune disease