Adarsh Choudhary*1, Amarjeet Singh2
*1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India
2Shakti College of Pharmacy, Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Peptic ulcer (PU) is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract resulting from an imbalance between endogenous aggressive factors and defensive factors. The former includes factors such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, refluxed bile, leukotrienes, reactive oxygen species (ROS), while the later includes surface active phospholipids, nitric oxide (NO), bicarbonate barrier, mucosal blood flow, prostaglandins (PGs), cell migration and renewal, nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants like catalase, and some growth factors. Reactive oxygen species play a key role in the pathogenesis of gastric inflammation and ulcerogenesis in H. pylori infections via increased expression of IL-8. Although there is better management of H. pylori infection but still the cases of idiopathic ulcers are increasing. Therefore, a combination of pharmacological and endoscopic approaches is used for the management of ulcers.
Keywords: Peptic ulcer, H. pylori, ROS, inflammatory mediators