*Okafor Ignatius S.1, Oduntan David A.1, Okafor Chibuike E.2, Adeleke Ibukun O.3
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, University of Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Jos, Nigeria
3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Igbinedion University Okada, Nigeria
A B S T R A C T
The aim of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of herbal tablets containing the combined hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del., Ocimum gratissimum Linn and Telfairia occidentalis Linn in experimental animals. The leaves of these three plants were collected, identified, dried and the constituents extracted by maceration. The phytochemical constituents of the extracts were identified by suitable and appropriate techniques. Herbal tablets containing the combined extracts were formulated and prepared by wet granulation method. The physical properties of the tablets evaluated included weight uniformity, disintegration time, thickness, diameter, hardness and friability. The hypoglycaemic activity of the extracts and herbal tablets was demonstrated in experimental animals using metformin tablet as the model drug. Results showed that the extracts contain flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and terpenes in various degrees. All the batches of tablets met pharmacopoeial and regulatory requirements for weight uniformity, friability and disintegration time. The hardness of the tablets was adequate for tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extracts or herbal tablets containing the extracts caused reductions in the glycaemic levels of the diabetic rats within 8 h. In conclusion, the reductions in the glycaemic levels exhibited by the combined extracts or herbal tablets containing the combined extracts are comparable with the results obtained with metformin tablet (p < 0.05).
Keywords: Vernonia amygdalina, Ocimum gratissimum, Telfairia occidentalis, tablets, hypoglycaemic activity