Wednesday , 19 June 2024

Effect of extraction solvents on the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial property of leaf extracts of Momordica balsamina Linn (Cucurbitaceae) found in North Central Nigeria

Jonathan. O. Kadiri*, Ignatius. S. Okafor and Ikoni. J. Ogaji
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Momordica balsamina has been used traditionally in the management of microbial infections and chronic diseases. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of extraction solvents on the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activity of M. balsamina on some test organisms. The leaf of M. balsamina was sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and water with per cent yields of 0.34, 1.96, 1.2, 6.7 and 21 % respectively. Although phytochemical screening revealed that the plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, carbohydrate and cardiac glycosides, only carbohydrates, steroids and cardiac glycosides were found in varying degrees in all the extracts. Alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids were present only in the aqueous and methanolic extracts. This variation in the phytochemical constituents of the extracts was attributed to the differential solubility of the phytochemical constituents in the solvents, and was responsible for the extent of antibacterial activity possessed by the extracts. The extracts were tested against strains of Staph. aureus, B. subtilis, Strept. pneumonae, E. coli, S. typhi and P. aeruginosa using the agar diffusion and streaking methods. The results showed that the methanolic extract exhibited MIC and MBC of 31.25 mg for all the test organisms, except E. coli and S. typhi. The MIC of the water extract was 31.25 mg against Staph. aureus and P. aeruginosa; and 62.5 mg against B. subtilis and Strept. pneumonae; whilethe MBC was 62.5 mg against the test organisms, except E. coli and S. typhi. E. coli was the most sensitive organism with MIC of 15.625 mg for extracts of both solvents. On the other hand, S. typhi exhibited the least sensitivity for the two solvents, with MIC of 62.5 and 125 mg for the methanolic and water extracts respectively. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaves of Momordica balsamina demonstrated antibacterial activity, while those obtained with hexane, dichloromethane or acetone did not demonstrate any appreciable antibacterial activity against the test organisms.
Keywords: Momordica balsamina, Extraction Solvents, Microorganisms, Antibacterial

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