Thursday , 29 February 2024

Development of New Trends in Removing Heavy Metals from Yamuna River in India

Ravi kumar*1, 2Dinesh Kumar Arya and 3Nouratan Singh
1Department of Chemistry, OPJS University, Churu, Rajasthan, India.
2Acharya Narendra Dev College Govind Puri, Kalkaji New Delhi-110019
3Scientific and Applied Research Center [SARC], Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Heavy metal concentrations in river water and sediments depend on not only industrial and domestic waste inputs but also on the geochemical composition of the area. The study reveals that there is a considerable variation in the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediments samples. These variations may be due to the change in the volume of industrial and sewage waste being added to river at different sampling stations. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments were found considerably higher than those measured in river water. The metal pair ratios clearly reflects maximum enrichment of all studied metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) at in Yamuna river water site S-4 followed by site S-5 for Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn, while site S-6 for Mn, Ni and Pb. It is unpolluted to moderately pollute with Pb. Activated carbon is complex materials, which cannot be characterized by chemical analysis or structural formula. Every carbon is unique with its physical and chemical characteristics, a direct result of its parent material, any pretreatment used and the temperature and nature of the activation whether it be chemical, physical or combination of both. Information on chemical structure was obtained by recording the infrared spectrum of the carbons in potassium bromide and Nujol mull in the range of 500 – 4000 cm-1 using a Perkin- Elmer spectrophotometer. The mercury porosimetries have been carried out with a Quantachrome model Autoscan – 60 porosimeter. The mercury density was determined as usual, by carrying out the mercury porosimetery experiments.
Keywords: Water, Heavy Metals, Yamuna river, Ganga river, Pollution

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