Raaz Maheshwari*, N S Nathawat
Department of Chemistry, SBRMGC, Nagaur, Rajasthan
Department of English, SBDTC, Lakshman Garh, Rajasthan
E-mail: [email protected]
Two of the greatest challenges facing the 21st century involve sustainable supplies of clean water and energy,too highly interrelated resources at affordable cost. Membrane technology is expected to continue owing to energy efficiency. However, there is need for improve membranes that have higher flux, are more selective and less prone to various types of fouling, and a more resistant to chemical environment, especially chlorine, of these processes. The article summarizes the Indian water problems and reviews the innovative state-of-the-art reverse osmosis technology existing deficiencies and the opportunities to resolve them.
Key words: Reverse osmosis, Electro dialysis, Foiling, Osmotic Pressure, salt rejection
It has been widely recognized that the depletion of conventional energy resources combine with their environmental impact pose major issues for our society and new technologies must be developed to achieve a sustainable source of energy. It is not so well appreciated that there is an analogous situation in meeting the world’s need for water; and this problem is already spreading worldwide. As in the case of energy, new technology is the key to current and future needs, and many companies are investigating heavily to meet these challenges. The ultimate source of this energy is the Sun and the only problem is in capturing solar energy in an efficient and economical way. There is lot of water on the planet, but increasingly this water is of inadequate quality (purity) for human consumption or other beneficial (industrial or agricultural) purposes. Thus, advance technologies for water purification are the essential part of meeting the current and future needs for water. Membrane process in today’s scenario has emerged as a viable means for water purification with desalination. Reverse osmosis being the most common example, but not the only example. Because of their energy efficiency, membranes will grow in importance compared to other technologies. This combined with the growing need to purify more and more water represents a growth opportunity for membrane technology. As membranes are of major interest in polymeric, this represents an opportunity for polymer science.