Monday , 17 June 2024

Basic Information on Madras Eye

Muneer S, Ruksana H, Dr Hindustan Abdul Ahad, Anil Kumar K
Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India

Synonyms: Conjunctivitis, Pink Eye
Conjunctivitis (commonly called “pinkeye” in the USA and “Madras Eye” in India) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), often due to infection. The causative organism for this is adenoviruses.
Key words: Conjunctivitis, redness of eye, burning.
There are three common varieties of conjunctivitis, viral, bacterial and allergic. Other causes of conjunctivitis include thermal and ultraviolet burns, chemicals, toxins, overuse of contact lenses, foreign bodies, vitamin deficiency, dry eye, and dryness due to inadequate lid closure. Viral conjunctivitis is spread by aerosol or contact of a variety of contagious viruses, including many that cause the common cold, so that it is often associated with upper respiratory tract symptoms. Bacterial conjunctivitis is most often caused by pyogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus from the patient’s own skin or respiratory flora. Others are due to infection from the environment (e.g., insect-borne), from other people (usually by touch – especially in children), but occasionally via eye makeup or facial lotions. E.g., Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Allergic conjunctivitis occurs more frequently among those with allergic conditions, with the symptoms having a seasonal correlation. It can also be caused by allergies to substances such as cosmetics, perfume, protein deposits on contact lenses, or drugs.
Eyes with conjunctivitis get redness, irritation and watering. Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an infection of the upper respiratory tract, a common cold or a sore throat. Its symptoms include watery discharge and variable itch. The infection usually begins with one eye, but may spread easily to the fellow eye. Bacterial conjunctivitis is characterized by marked grittiness/irritation and a stringy, opaque, grey or yellowish mucopurulent discharge that may cause the lids to stick together, especially after sleeping. This is the only group in which severe pain may occur. Acute allergic conjunctivitis is typically itchy with mild swelling. Chronic allergy often causes just itch or irritation and often much frustration because the absence of redness or discharge can lead to accusations of hypochondria.
Treatment and management
For the allergic type, cool compresses and artificial tears sometimes relieve discomfort in mild cases. In more severe cases, NSAIDs and antihistamines may be used. Bacterial conjunctivitis is usually treated with antibiotic eye drops. Although there is no cure for viral conjunctivitis, symptomatic relief may be achieved with cool compresses and artificial tears. For the worst cases, topical steroid drops may be prescribed to reduce the discomfort from inflammation. Patients are often advised to avoid touching their eyes or sharing towels and washcloths. Viral conjunctivitis usually resolves within 3 weeks. Conjunctivitis due to burns, toxic and chemical require careful wash-out with saline, especially beneath the lids and may require topical steroids.
Do not use towel/kerchief anything that would have touched by the patients. Wash hands well preferably with a disinfectant. Using glasses does not help. Looking at a person with conjunctivitis or vice versa does not transmit the disease.

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