Monday , 24 June 2024

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis – A Review

Ramesh Dhani, M. Gobinath, C. Yamini*, Sonalika Patro, G. Divya, T. Lavanya
Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Pidathapolur, SPSR Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease. It is characterised by degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, cortico-spinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord by progressive muscular paralysis. Western Pacific people are more prone to this disease.  60 years is the mean age for the onset of sporadic ALS.  The symptoms that are present is related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs.  Paralysis is progressive and due to respiratory failure it leads to death within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases.  The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of ‘ALS-mimics spondyloticmyelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, and Kennedy’s disease by appropriate investigations.
Keywords: Neurodegenerative disease, gene mutation, muscle atrophy, electromyography.

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