Sd. Khalilullah*, K.Manasa, S.Satish babu, Ch. Dileep, P. Suresh, B.Brahmaiah, Nama Sreekanth, PatanAdamkhan.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Priyadarshini Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research(PIPER),
Pulladigunta, Kornepadu (V), Vatticherukuru (M), Guntur-522017, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Needle-free injection systems are novel ways to introduce various medicines into patients without piercing the skin with a conventional needle. They can take the form of power sprays, edible products, inhalers, and skin patches. While hypodermic needles were first introduced during the 1800s, needle-free systems are relatively recent inventions. Today, they are a steadily developing technology that promises to make the administration of medicine more efficient and less painfulthere has been a renewed interesting needle-free devices in swine due to twomain factors, immunology research, indicatingthat targeting dendritic cells in theskin and the subcutaneous tissues results inimproved immune response with minimalantigen doses, and to minimizeneedle-site lesions that are the result ofbroken needles, bacterial contamination.
Key words: Needle free, power sprays, inhalers, immunology.
People are given injections to protect them from influenza, tetanus, cholera, typhoid, and other diseases. When a needle is inserted through the skin, the vaccine (or drug) it carries provides systemic immunity. This is because the vaccine gets into the bloodstream and provokes the body to create antibodies that are carried throughout the entire body.In the United States, children may get over 13 vaccine injections by the age of 16. Unfortunately, there are a variety of problems associated with the hypodermic needles used for these injections. One of the most significant drawbacks is the relatively high cost of the needles.Additionally, many people have a fear of needles which causes them to avoid treatment. These drawbacks have led to the development of alternative delivery systems to needle injections .Needle-free systems are designed to solve these problems making them safer, less expensive, and more convenient. It is anticipated that these systems will increase the incidence of vaccination and reduce the amount of prescribed antibiotics. Moreover, they should reduce the number of needle stick accidents that have resulted in some health care workers contracting diseases.More than a dozen companies have developed alternatives to needle injections. Some of the different designs include nasal sprays, nose drops, flavored liquids, skin patches, air forced and edible vaccine-packed vegetables.The needle-free systems that are most like traditional injections involve the direct transfer of the medicine through the skin. One company offers an injection system where the drug is dispersed through the skin as a fine mist or powder. In this system, a tube-shaped device is held against the skin and a burst of air forces the molecules of medicine into the body. The device is designed to force the medicine far enough through the skin so it enters the bloodstream. An application for which this system is particularly useful is for patients who need daily doses of growth hormone. Patches have been introduced as needle-free delivery systems. These devices, which look like bandages, slowly transfer medicine through the skin. In one type of patch, thousands of tiny blades are imbedded on its surface. The patch is covered with medicine and then placed on the skin. The blades make microscopic cuts in the skin that opens a path for drugs to enter through. When an electric current is applied, the medicine is forced into the body. This process, called iontophoresis. Inhalers are another type of needle-free delivery system. In these systems, liquids or powders are inhaled and delivered into the lungs. These devices are good for delivering protein drugs because the lungs provide a rapid absorption into the bloodstream. In one system there is a pump unit that atomizes a powdered medication. This allows the patient to inhale the proper amount of medicine without it getting trapped in the back of the throat. For diabetics who require daily injections of insulin, an aerosol inhaler has also been introduced.Oral vaccines are needle-free systems that may replace vaccine injections. This technology has been difficult to perfect for many reasons. The primary problem with this type of delivery system is that the environment of the digestive system is harsh and typically destroys vaccines and other drugs. Also, vaccines do not work as well in provoking antibody production in the digestive lining. One of the latest oral vaccines involves freeze drying the medicine and mixing it with a salt buffer to protect it when it is in the stomach. Other edible forms include a sugar solution of a vaccine against the bacterium that causes ulcers. For travelers, a typhoid-vaccine capsule has been developed as an alternative to the two painful shots typically required.