About author :
Naga Jyothi*, Dr. Hindustan Abdul Ahad
B. Pharmacy, Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India
The World Anti-Doping Agency, established in 1999 to deal with the increasing problem of doping in the sports world. The banned substances and techniques fall into the following categories: androgens, blood doping, peptide hormones, stimulants, diuretics, narcotics, and cannabinoids.
KEY WORDS: sports, doping, athletes
Blood doping :
Blood doping is the injection of red blood cells, related blood products that contain red blood cells, or artificial oxygen containers. The unnatural level of red blood cells improves oxygen transport and athletic endurance; thus, it is prohibited in most events.
Banned androgenic agents :
Banned androgenic agents are either anabolic steroids, which increase testosterone and epitestosterone, thereby improving muscle strength and endurance. A Few of the banned drugs are endogenous, that is they are normally produced in the human body, most of the banned drug are exogenous drugs chemically produced.
a. Exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids
E.g., Methyldienolone, Norboletone, Landrostendiol, Bolandiol, Mestenolone, Dehydrochlormethyl testosterone and Dexosymethytestosterone.
b. Endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids
E.g., Androstenediol, Androstenedione, Dihydrotestosterone, Prasterone and Testosterone
Hormones and related substances
Peptide hormones increase bulk, strength, and oxygen-carrying red blood cells.
E.g., erythropoietin (EPO), growth hormone (hGH), Insulin-like growth factors, Mechano growth factors (MGFs), chorionic gonadotropin (banned in men only), somatotrophin (growth hormone), insulins and corticotrophins, corticosteroid
Stimulants directly affect the central nervous system, increasing blood flow and heart rate.
E.g., Amphetamines, beta-2 agonists, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, fencamfamine, cocaine, methamphetamines and mesocarb
Diuretics and masking agents :
Diuretics, which increase the production of urine, and masking agents, chemical compounds which interefere with drug tests are banned for two reasons.
Decreasing water retention and thus decreasing an athlete’s weight, an important consideration in many speed sports, they increase the speed of an athlete.
Increased urine production depletes the concentration of both the banned drugs and their metabolites, making their detection more difficult.
Masking agents, on the other hand, work by making drug tests ineffective, leading to false-negative results.
E.g. Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, Metolazon, Spironolacton, Triamterene, Amiloride, Bendroflumethiazide, Chlorothiazide, Furosemide
Narcotic analgesics decrease the sensation of serious injuries, allowing athletes to continue training or competition after serious injuries. While some painkillers are allowed, including codeine, the following are banned:
E.g., Buprenorphine, Dextromoramide, Diamorphine (heroin), Fentanyl, Methadone, Morphine, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Pentazocine and Pethidine
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids that affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and proteins, and regulate glycogen and blood pressure levels.
Beta blockers :
Beta blockers are prohibited during competition in a number of sports; out of competition, they are prohibited only in archery and shooting.
E.g., Acebutolol, Atenolol, Betaxolol, Carvedilol, Labetalol, Metoprolol, Oxprenolol and Sotalol
Be sportive while you are in sports and don’t give chance to anybody to blame you.