Thursday , 15 November 2018

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a long term problem in which growing patches of the skin lose their color, it can affect people of any age , gender. The patches appear when the melanocytes within the skin dies off .It is not  contagious , the condition is photosensitive , it means that the affected areas  will be more sensitive to sunlight than those that are not .It  is hard to predict whether the patches will spread , and by how much. The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown and unclear , the number of factors include an auto immune disorder, genetic oxidative stress imbalance, a stressful event , harm to skin due to a critical sunburn or cut , exposure to some chemicals, a neural cause, heredity, a virus. The only symptom of vitiligo is the appearance of flat white spots or patches on the skin , it starts as a simple spot , a little paler than the rest of the skin, the spot becomes paler until it turns white .
Two types of vitiligo
Segmental vitiligo
It spreads more rapidly but is considered more constant and stable, less erratic than the non segmental type .it is more noticeable in early age groups. It usually affects areas of skin attached to nerves arising in the dorsal roots of the spine .It responds well to the topical treatments
Non segmental vitiligo
It is the most common type, the white patches often appear on the skin that is commonly exposed to sun, mainly on the parts of back of the hands , arms , eyes , knees, elbows , feet , mouth , armpit , groin , nose , navel , genitals , rectal area Non segmental vitiligo is further broken down into subcategories known as Generalized, acrofacial , mucosal , universal , focal Vitiligo does not develop into other diseases, but people with the condition are more likely to experience painful sunburn, hearing loss , changes to vision and tear production. Management of vitiligo includes: American Academy of Dermatology describe vitiligo as more than a cosmetic problem. it is a health issue that needs medical attention .This includes:

  • Using sunscreen
  • Phototherapy with UVB light
  • Phototherapy with UVA light
  • Skin camouflage
  • Depigmenting
  • Topical corticosteroids
  • Calcipotriene (vit-D analouge)
  • Immunosuppressants
  • Skin grafts
  • Surgery
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