Patel Chirag J
Dept. of Pharmaceutics
Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Gujarat, India
Various constituents of an herbal extract may contribute to synergistic effect and process like separation and purification can lead to a partial loss of specific activity due to the removal of chemically related substance contributing to the activity of main substance. Most of time chemical complexity of the extracts seems to be important for the bioavailability of active constituents. Water soluble or polar phytoconstituents can be converted into lipid-compatible molecular complex called phytosomes. Phytosome is patented technology developed by Indeda, a leading manufacturer of drugs and nutraceuticals, to incorporate standardized plant extracts or water soluble or polar constituents to produce lipid compatible molecular complexes and improve their absorption and bioavailability.
Keywords: Phytosomes, Phytoconstituents, Bioavailability, Indeda
A phytosomes is a complex between an herbal extract and natural phospholipids, like soy phospholipids. Generally Phytosomes are prepared by reacting from 3-2 moles but preferably with one mole of natural or synthetic phospholipids such as phosphotidylcholine, phosphotidylserin or phosphotidylethanolamine, with one mole herbal of component, either alone or in the natural mixture in aprotic solvent such as dioxane or acetone. The phytosome complex can be then isolated by precipitation with non solvent such as aliphatic hydrocarbons like n-hexane or lyophilization or by spray drying. The dried residues were gathered and placed in desiccators over night, then crushed in motor and sieved with a 100 mesh. Many popular standardized herbal extracts comprising of flavanoids, polyphenolics, terpenes, alkaloids, volatile oils are employed for the preparation of phytosomes.
Advantages of phytosomes :
1.Phosphotidycholine used in the preparation of phytosomes act as a carrier as well as hepatoprotective, hence giving synergistic effect when hepatoprotective substances are employed.
2. Phytosomes enhance the absorption of polar phytoconstituents through oral as well as topical route showing better bioavailability with significantly better therapeutic benefit.
3. Entrapment efficiency is higher. In phytosome herbal extracts are protected from destruction by gut bacteria and digestive secretion.
4.Absorption of phytoconstituents is improved so its dose required is reduced. Phytosomes show better stability because chemical bond formed between Phosphotidycholine and polar phytoconstituent.
5. Leakage of drug during storage does not occur in phytosome, because drug is bonded with lipid, however loss may occur due to some chemical degradation i.e. hydrolysis.
6. Unlike liposome, there is no need of following the tedious, time consuming step for removing the free, entrapped drug from the formulation.
Phytosomes are new drug delivery system of herbal extract that are better absorbed than conventional herbal extract and solid dispersion of herbal extract. Phytosomes are used in treatment of various acute diseases as more amount of active constituent becomes present at the site of action ( heart, liver, brain, kidney etc) at similar or less dose as compared to the conventional herbal extract. Phytosomes have improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacological parameter. Phytosomes being much better absorbed than liposomes. Phytosome can play a vital role in efficient herbal drug delivery of a broad spectrum of hepatoprotective phytoconstituents like flavones, terpenes and xanthones.