Basil Ita1*, Samuel Eduok2
1Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.
A B S T R A C T
The antidermatophytic activity of saponin and alkaloid extracts from organs of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius against Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton interdigitale was studied by the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assessed by the broth microdilution technique. Our findings revealed a wide range of activity against the tested dermatophytes. The saponin root extract exhibited promising activity against all the tested dermatophytes (IZ = 27 – 34mm; MIC = 0.2 – 1.1mg/mL), followed closely by the alkaloid root extract (IZ = 15–30mm; MIC = 0.4–2.3mg/mL). Also, the saponin stem extract was most active against Microsporum canis (MIC = 1.7mg/mL) and the saponin leaf extract against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC = 1.8mg/mL). Furthermore, the alkaloid stem extract inhibited the growth of Microsporum canis (MIC = 0.4mg/mL) while the alkaloid leaf extract inhibited the growth of Microsporum gypseum (MIC = 0.9mg/mL). These findings suggest that saponin and alkaloid extracts from organs of C. aconitifolius can be used as natural alternatives for the treatment of dermatophycosis caused by these organisms.
Keywords: Antidermatophytic activity, phytochemicals, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton interdigitale.