Saturday , 23 September 2017

A Review on Thyroid Disease

B. Kumar*, K. Durga Prasanna Roja,  M. Gobinath
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy, Pidthapolur, Nellore.

The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine gland and consists of two connected lobes. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (sometimes referred to as tetraiodothyronine (T4)). These hormones regulate the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. The primary function of the thyroid is production of the hormones T3, T4 and calcitonin. Up to 80% of the T4 is converted to T3 by organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen. T3 is several times more powerful than T4, which is largely a prohormone, perhaps four or even ten times more active. Beta-blockers are used to decrease symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as increased heart rate, tremors, anxiety and heart palpitations, and anti-thyroid drugs are used to decrease the production of thyroid hormones, in particular, in the case of Graves’ disease. The gland shrinks by 50-60% but can cause hypothyroidism and rarely pain syndrome, which arises due to radiation thyroiditis. It is short lived and treated by steroids.
Keywords: Thyroid Gland,Thyroxine, Triiodothyronine, Graves ‘disease, Spleen and Kidney.

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